Blended Counselling and Gemeinschaftsgefühl: limits and opportunities” presented at the 2022 IAIP Conference by Andrés Buschiazzo

As Academic Director and Didactic Analyst of the Adlerian Studies Center- IAIP Uruguay, it is my pleasure to greet and thank the IAIP authorities, President Dr Marina Bluvshtein, General Secretary Dr Gian Secondo Mazzoli and Vice President Dr Ursula Oberst, colleagues and general audience.

In Genéve, on March 11 of 2020 the general director of the World Health Organization declared that the new disease due to coronavirus (Covid-19) could be characterized as a pandemic and so that specific social distancing and isolation measures should be taken.

All psychologists believed that it would be the end of in-person therapy and the emergence of Teletherapy. But it wasn’t, rather that uncertainty, anxiety and distress traits emerged as a result of the pandemic. The face-to-face therapy is not ending, but we have to investigate psychotherapy in general and its effects on people’s mental health. We well know that psychotherapy is better than doing nothing or doing anything that has no therapeutic purpose, but we still don ́t know if its effects are specific or general, despite the theoretical framework.

Adler always taught us Adlerian Psychology in comparison, without losing sight of ensemble and integration that the psychotherapeutic science must have. Also, an ethic and human attitude to bring peace, joy and happiness to the community. In the previous meetings for this congress section “Blended Counseling y Gemeinschaftsgefühl: opportunities and boundaries.” our moderator and friend Givannis De Santis (Italy) helped us to collectively think how this topic could be approached and asked the following question: what would Adler say in the present days?

The immediate response was “To increase community feeling”, that affective-cognitive tendency of human being to orientate their behavior to coexistence, cooperation and fulfillment of life’s tasks (Love- Work- Friendship and why not, Art and Transcendence)

But i would like to put emphasis in 5 components of the community feeling described by Wexber:
(1) Objectivity: means to see and judge things as they are, putting aside personal interests and all the subjective elements that may deform perception.

(2) Logic in thinking activity: “only the one that has the courage to accept the unfavourable outcome is able to establish conclusions consequently without thinking errors.

(3) Performance capacity: not only indicates the individual’s utility to community, but mainly its personal commitment to the development and work.

(4) Self-determination (¡¡) to the experience of nature and art. The community feeling transcends the bond with human beings, it also means the union with life ́s facts and all the cosmos.

(5) Sense of responsibility through all the activity, idea, thought and feeling.

In order to develop the human ability, the therapist role through comprehension and therapeutic encouragement is the key. As Adlerians we are experts on that because we know how to give encouragement (not praise ), give options (not prescriptions) and we are emphatic as Adler would say “To see with the eyes of another, to hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another.”

All in all, the tele counseling has arrived and somehow it has amplified the repertory of psychological applications. Due to that, it is adequate first of all to answer the question of what we are talking about when we speak of Telehealth and combined Counseling. Somehow these terms have transformed our clinic practices, first with a specific pandemic situation, and now, with the post- pandemia.

Until that date, I didn’t implement any online counseling, just in-person counseling in an individual or group psychotherapy format. After being in suspense for one month, with other Uruguayan colleagues we were collectively elaborating about how to offer an effective online psychotherapeutic service of quality. Moreover, we were adopting the professional skills to teleworking, and for that we made a course organized by The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) called “Remote Provision of mental health and psychosocial interventions”.

How does the PAHO define telecounseling?

Tele counseling, sometimes defined as remote counseling or telehealth, refers to the interactions that take place between a health professional and a patient with the objective of providing diagnostic or therapeutic counsel through electronic means.

Some previous considerations provided by the WHO (World Health Organization) in order to
establish a tele mental health service are:

(1) Tele mental health services can be efficient. Tele mental health is a viable alternative to in-person attention for a wide range of mental health disorders. However, the interventions must be adapted to every context, permanent formation, support and supervisions are crucial in this matter.
(2) The telehealth may include: phone calls, video conferences and text messages and e-
(3) The key is to adapt technology to the users.
(4) The remote services supply may not be adequate to all the uses of the service; for example, it is possible that people with chronic mental disease, neurodegenerative affections or other disabilities may not receive services through telehealth or when people cannot have private conversations due to their overcrowding houses.

On the other hand, after a bibliographic revision about “Combined therapy”, these are some
international facts (APA, WHO, PAHO).

What is combined therapy?
The combined therapy, also known as combined counsel, is a combination of face to face and online components to create a dynamic treatment plan that works for both patient and provider.

Not necessarily a completely online service but any treatment plan that incorporates any remote activity.

According to the investigators, combined therapy may facilitate
(1) “An extended exposure to the therapy in an affordable and profitable format.”
(2) Allows a minor time lapse commitment for the professionals , less time travelling for the patients, more access to the content and lower general costs.

Evidence is still being researched, but until now it seems like combined therapy works as well as traditional face-to face- therapy. A recent study showed that combined attention through video was really efficient to reduce depression and anxiety symptoms (Lungu, A. Jun, J. J., Azarmanesh, O., Leykin, Y., & Chen, C. E (2020) And for some clients, the freedom to choose when, where and how to complete their “task” may have contributed to more positive therapeutic results. (Wilhelmsen et al., 2013)

This way, In Uruguay we were elaborating a protocol to practice Online Brief Adlerian Psychotherapy, which consists in 12 online sessions distributed in 3 months with the possibility to extend the treatment according to the peculiarity of each case. The first Adlerian interviewis fundamental and predicts adequately the adhesion and therapeutic goal based on the patients expectations.

These are some of the conclusions that we arrived at through our experience in Uruguay with the online therapy format, combined therapy and face-to-face therapy.

It is a way of ensuring a continuity of the assistance when, for example, some sanitary emergencies take place and people cannot move or keep close physical contact.

  • It may be performed with people with health problems or disabilities that may limit their
    displacement ability to a health centre. For example, people that may have immunodeficiency
    disorder affections, access difficulty to transportation means adapted to those with anxiety or
  • It may be useful to overcome barriers such as the attendance to the health centre due to economic difficulties, long distances to go through, inaccessible roads or transport difficulties.
  • Reduce time and costs associated with movement.
  • Can be used to help people no matter where they are.
  • Can be used to help people who live in places without any near psychological support services.


  • Communication can be more complicated due to the lack of non verbal information.
  • High risk situations management can be more complicated (such as the suicide risk cases)
  • It can be less reliable due to the dependence of the use of technology and telecommunications.
  • Not everyone counts with a smartphone or similar electronic device, so for some people it may be impossible to access to this kind of services.
  • People who receive psychological counseling could not rely on the level of privacy and security of their information when it comes to the use of technology.
    • According to an APA report from 2022, in 2021 50% of the psychologists had started to offer face-to face and virtual services to their patients, against the 30% from 2020. The study also showed that 25% of the adults with low incomes do not have smartphones and the 40% from this group do not have internet or computers at home, something that indicates a significant concern about equity in telehealth.

This means that psychologists must be prepared for a hybrid future, and so, a stronger need to establish an integral psychotherapy, with more collaboration between other disciplines related to psychology and common interest areas, with a strong emphasis on community feeling, social justice and environmental care.

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Dialoghi Adleriani January-June 2016- Istituto Alfred Adler Milano

In the “Studies and Researches” opening section, we publish an exceptional and original novelty, written by Alfred Adler in 1929 in “Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie”, the first Adlerian periodical founded by Alfred Adler in 1914 in Vienna.

Alfred Adler gives us an anonymous historian Editorial, titled “Advice for the consultant. From a great man”, in which he faces with ironic and biting style the topical theme of “counter-fiction”, i.e. the masking with which the human being tends to conceal the turn into the opposite of the shameful feeling of inferiority.

About the same theme we also publish another wonderful article titled “Fictions, counter-fiction and magic”, written approximately, one hundred years later, by Henry T. Stein, prompt and attentive Adlerian follower.

After that, you can enjoy an article titled “Active control of transference and counter-transference in psychodynamically oriented short-term therapy”, written by Michael Titze, who describes the characteristic features of psychodynamically oriented short-term in order to present an unconventional or even paradoxical method that diverges from standard psychoanalytic procedure.

We then offer you a very interesting study made by Andrés Buschiazzo, titled “The memories: useful fictions”, in accordance with the Loftus’s claims about the reconstruction and deforming work of the first memories.

The “Studies and Researches” section is closed, finally, by the article “The cognitive leap of homo sapiens in the middle-upper paleolithic: a point of view from a paleoanthropological and Adlerian dynamic-cognitive/constructivist perspective”, written by Cosimo Varriale, in which the Author highlights the substantial correspondences between the Adlerian dynamic-constructivist model and the Darwinian bio-evolutionary one.

In the “Art and Society” section Chiara Scaratti proposes a topical theme by writing an article titled “Play or be awake? Gambling between fiction and compensation”, where the Author underlines how gambling is a growing phenomenon, that represents a social problem involving not only the player, but also his family, his social context, and the whole community.

Marco Tosi in the “Comparisons” section with the article “What is Mindfulness” deepens the technique, now consolidated, developed by some Western psychiatrists who were inspired by Eastern meditation practices.

Finally, in the “Meetings and Interviews” section we are honored to host Vittorio Cigoli, who has been Full Professor of Clinical Psychology of Couple and Family Relationships at the Faculty of Psychology at the Catholic University of Sacred Hearth, Milan as well as Director of the Postgraduate School of Psychology “A. Gemelli”. Our questions have stimulated him to reflect on family bodies, on Generational Clinic Interview, on despairing ties, on couple therapy, on parenting in same-sex couples. Our interview aims to promote a dialogue between Adlerian model and the clinic of family bodies. Link to the journal


Dialoghi Adleriani Nov 2015- Istituto Alfred Adler Milano

In the opening section of this forth issue, you will have the chance to read a very precious and historically important unpublished work signed by Aladin, both in the original German version and the English and Italian translations. As you may have already guessed, Aladin is the pseudonym used by Alfred Adler when he used to write for the Workers’ Viennese Socialist newspaper “Arbeiter-Zeitung” in 1897.

Then, Silvia Vegetti Finzi kindly gave a passionate and insightful interview to “Dialoghi Adleriani”: we know that Silvia Vegetti Finzi’s personal narrative has always been characterized by her constant intellectual work and her widespread social commitment for the rights of women, children, teenagers and the elderly. Silvia Vegetti Finzi has been an encouraging supporter of the Adlerian initiatives and she is currently a member of the “International Scientific Committee” of “Dialoghi Adleriani” magazine. We cannot forget her work on the theory and history of psychoanalysis, published in 1986 by Oscar Mondadori Publisher, “History of Psychoanalysis. Author, Works, Theories. 1895-1990”, a book that broke up the monopoly of Jungian and Freudian schools. This influential book has played a pivotal role in the education of generations of psychologists. Besides, Silvia Vegetti Finzi taught “Dynamic Psychology” at the Department of Philosophy of the University of Pavia from 1975 to 2005. Thirdly, “Dialoghi Adleriani” offers the readers a delicate and vigorous article, a powerful and insightful, deep and light example of prose and poetry: the article has been donated to “Dialoghi Adleriani” magazine by Eugenio Borgna, an inspired cantor of a humanized Medicine and Psychiatry; his Medicine and Psychiatry tend to the art of listening, the infinite dialog with the wounds of the soul and the body of the patient.

Science reaches out to the relationship with the patient and aims at reconciling the needs of rapid time for the diagnosis, and long time, Agostinian time, the inner time that every patient needs when they need help and understanding of their pain and dignity: the most appreciated gifts are the “silent and discreet” ones that stem from a “friendship a priori”.

Download The covering letter of the online journal “Dialoghi adleriani” of A.Adler Insitute in Milan in English

Link to the journal


Newsletter n°15 September 2015 – Centro de Estudios Adlerianos (Bilingual: Spanish and English)


After the pioneer’s farewell: to know the origins and project the future  

Approaching brief Therapies  

Cristian Dibot 

Frida Kahlo and the existential anxiety: Hypersensitive anxiety 

Anne-Marie Mathis Mormin 

Individual Psychology in Vienna Yesterday and Today 

Barbara Neudecker  

Forgetting is remembering  

Bernardo Salinas 

The Secret Garden. An Adlerian Interpretation 

Christelle Schläpfer 
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Centro de Estudios Adlerianos – May 2015 n.14 Special Edition

Edición Especial in memoriam Prof Yair Hazán

Índice / Index

Un modelo para asesorar la importancia del ambiente en el

tratamiento de depresión / 12

A Model for Counseling the Significant Entourage in the Treatment of

Depression / 21

Oscar C. Christensen / Carroll R. Thomas

Un visión macroscópica de la psicología social y nuevas epistemologías / 3

A macroscopic vision of the social psychology and new epistemologies / 7

Andrés Buschiazzo

El “estilo” del setting adleriano/ 31

The “style” of the Adlerian setting/ 35

Giuseppe Ferrigno

Aliento adleriano: Modelado de las actitudes y habilidades de la salud mental / 61

Adlerian Encouragement: Modeling the Attitudes and Skills of Mental Health /64

Richard E. Watts 

Un enfoque de resiliencia centrado en las familias:La integración de Adler

& la investigación resiliencia / 50

A Resilience-Focused Approach with Families: Integrating Adler & the

resilience research / 55

William G. Nicoll

Perfeccionismo y éxito académico / 39

Perfectionism and Academic Success / 44

Ramona Ioana Grad

Un estudio de la relevancia de la educación para padres / 68

A Case for The Importance of Parent Education / 73

Alyson Schafer
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Dialoghi Adleriani Mar 2015- Istituto Alfred Adler Milano

Here you find the link to the third issue of the online journal “Dialoghi Adleriani” of the Alfred Adler Institute of Milan:

“Dialoghi Adleriani” is now two years old and, as usual, Adlerian contributions in this issue will be both Italian and international and they will appear in English and Italian alike.

The third issue of “Dialoghi adleriani” offers the Reader articles that explore both current themes and research by academics, a kind of research that is very close to the Adlerian theoretical model in an effort to encourage interaction, dialogue and debate. 


Journal of Individual Psychology: Winter 2014 Special Issue on Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy

Contents of the JIP Special Issue:
* “Classical Adlerian Depth Psychotherapy: The Congruence of a
Theory,” by Erik Mansager
* “Rediscovering Adler,” by Henry Stein
* “Striving for Authenticity,” by Sophia de Vries
* “A Narrative Survey of Classical Adlerian Psychotherapists,” by Erik
* “Applying the Classical Adlerian Family Diagnostic Process,”by Jane
Pfefferle and Erik Mansager
* “Classical Adlerian Assessment of an Adult Child of an Alcoholic:
Queen of the Derelicts,” by Dyanne Pienkowski
* “Examples and Explanations of the Socratic Method in CADP,” by
Sophia de Vries and Henry Stein
* Review of Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy, Volume 1,” by Dyanne
* “Classical Adlerian Publications”

Link to the journal


Newsletter n°13 December 2014 – Centro de Estudios Adlerianos (Bilingual: Spanish and English)


El origen, el significado y sentido del distress juvenil. ¿Curar al
individuo o la sociedad? 
The origin, meaning and direction of youth distress. To cure the
individual or the society? 

Paradojas en psicoterapia 
Paradoxes in Psychotherapy 

Vacío precario y sentimiento social 
Precarious emptiness and social feeling

La muerte de las evidencias 
The evidences’ death 

Aspectos no-verbales en el arte de alentar 
Non-verbal aspects of the art of encouraging 

Sobre la interpretación 
About interpretation

El auto cuidado en la profesión de asesoramiento 
Self-care in the Counseling Profession

El trabajo: Misión del hombre como ser social
WorkMission of man as a social being 

El éxtasis de Minko
Minko’s ecstasy

Download Newsletter 13 CEA


Dialoghi Adleriani Oct 2014- Istituto Alfred Adler Milano

Here you find the link to the second issue of the on line journal “Dialoghi adleriani” of Alfred Adler Institute of Milan:

This issue of the journal “Dialoghi adleriani” offers readers Adlerian contributions both from Italy and abroad. The aim is to encourage the interaction and cooperation between all the Adlerians around the world through the presentation of some items translated into English and Italian.
The Alfred Adler Insitute in Milan invite the readers to collaborate with articles and even constructive criticism in order to help improve the  quality of this on-line journal.

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